Rediscovery of Oryzomys fulgens: implications for the taxonomy of Oryzomys


  • Noe González-Ruiz Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana
  • José Ramírez-Pulido Departamento Biología, División de Ciencias Biológicas y de la Salud, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana
  • Alan Roy Jiménez-Gutiérrez Departamento Biología, División de Ciencias Biológicas y de la Salud, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana
  • Joaquín Arroyo-Cabrales Laboratorio de Arqueozoología ‘‘M. en C. Ticul Álvarez Solórzano’’ Subdirección de Laboratorios y Apoyo Académico, INAH


Basin of México, conservation, Oligoryzomys, taxonomy, Xochimilco


The rodents belonging to the genus Oryzomys are among the most widely distributed groups inhabiting North America.  Currently, 13 species with continental, peninsular, or insular distributions are known.  However, this genus also faces significant conservation challenges, primarily due to climate change and other human-related activities.  One such enigmatic species is Oryzomys fulgens.  Its main challenge lies in the fact that it was originally described from an imprecise type locality, simply labeled as "Mexico." Fortunately, recent research has delimited its range to the Basin of México. Nonetheless, the lack of comparison between its holotype and other specimens of the genus in México has hindered the accurate assignment of its name to any known taxon, despite being one of the oldest names within the genus, O. fulgens has rarely been used since its original description.  During our research, we collected two specimens of O. fulgens from Xochimilco, México City, a remnant wetland situated within the Basin of México, nestled within one of the largest and most urbanized cities globally.   To properly assess its taxonomic status, we compared our specimens with the holotype of O. fulgens, as well as with other species from southern and western México.  The considerable morphological differences we observed in O. fulgens, coupled with its distinct and unique habitat as the sole species of the genus occupying temperate regions at high elevations, lead us to propose that it is indeed a distinct species, separate from O. mexicanus and O. albiventer.  Historically, its distribution was likely limited to the Basin of México. Today, O. fulgens faces serious conservation problems, mainly due to the restriction of its current distribution, as far as we know, confined to Xochimilco.  Although the ancestral agricultural system known as "chinampas" might provide an ideal environment for sustaining populations of this species, it remains under significant pressure from various human activities, predators, and competition with invasive species like the black rat.  Urgent conservation efforts are needed to safeguard the unique habitat of O. fulgens and protect this enigmatic species from further decline.

Author Biography

Noe González-Ruiz, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana

División de Ciencias Biológicas y de la Salud, Departamento de Biología, Colección de Mamíferos


ANDERSON, S. 1977. Geographic ranges of North American terrestrial mammals. American Museum Novitates 2629:1-15.

ARCE-PEÑA, N. P., V. ARROYO-RODRÍGUEZ, M. SAN-JOSÉ, D. JIMÉNEZ-GONZÁLEZ, I. FRANCH-PARDO, E. ANDRESEN, AND L. D. ÁVILA-CABADILLA. 2019. Landscape predictors of rodent dynamics in fragmented rainforests. Biodiversity and Conservation 28:655-669.

ALCÁNTARA ONOFRE, S. 2020. Urban Agriculture and Landscape in Mexico City Between History and Innovation. Pp. 79–96. In: AgriCultura: Urban Agriculture and the Heritage Potential of Agrarian Landscape (Scazzosi, L., and P. Branduini, eds.) Springer International Publishing.

ÁLVAREZ-CASTAÑEDA, S. T. 1994. Current status of the rice rat, Oryzomys couesi peninsularis. The Southwestern Naturalist 39:99-100.

ALVAREZ-CASTAÑEDA, S. T., AND P. CORTÉS-CALVA. 1996. Anthropogenic extinction of the endemic deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus cineritius, on San Roque Island, Baja California Sur, Mexico. The Southwestern Naturalist 41:459-461.

ÁLVAREZ-CASTAÑEDA, S. T., AND L. MÉNDEZ. 2003. Oryzomys nelsoni. Mammalian Species 735:1-2.

ÁLVAREZ-CASTAÑEDA, S. T., AND A. ORTEGA-RUBIO, A. 2003. Current status of rodents on islands in the Gulf of California. Biological Conservation 109:157-163.

ARROYO-CABRALES, J., L. LEÓN-PANIAGUA, AND N. GONZÁLEZ-RUIZ. 2019. Recent appraisal of the mexican mammals on deposit at the Natural History Museum (London), United Kingdom. Pp 747-774. In: From field to laboratory: a memorial volume in honor of Robert J. Baker (Bradley, R. D., H. H. Genoways, D. J. Schmidly, and L. C. Bradley, eds.). Special Publications, Museum of Texas Tech University.

BENSON, D. L., AND F. R. GEHLBACH. 1979. Ecological and taxonomic notes on the rice rat (Oryzomys couesi) in Texas. Journal Mammalogy 60:225–228.

BLOOMFIELD, K. 1975. A late-Quaternary monogenetic volcano field in central Mexico. Geologische Rundschau 64:476-497.

BOJORQUEZ TAPIA, L. A., E. EZCURRA, M. MAZARI-HIRIART, S. DIAZ, P. GÓMEZ, G. ALCANTAR, AND D. MEGAREJO. 1998. Basin of Mexico: A History of Watershed Mismanagement. Pp. 129-137. In: Land Stewardship in the 21st Century: The Contributions of Watershed Management (Ffolliott, P., M. B. Baker, C. B. Edminster, M. C. Dillon, M. K. Mora, coords.). Proceedings of the Rocky Mountain Research Station.

BOUCARD, A. 1894. Travels of a Naturalist: A Record of Adventures, Discoveries, History and Customs of Americans and Indians, Habits and Descriptions of Animals, Chiefly Made in North America, California, Mexico, Central America, Columbia, Chili, Etc., During the Last Forty-two Years. Pardy & Son, Printers, The Triangle, Bournemouth. United Kingdom, I-VII, I-II, 1-204.

BRITO J., C. KOCH, A. R. PERCEQUILLO, N. TINOCO, M. WEKSLER, C. M. PINTO, AND U. F. J. PARDIÑAS. 2020. A new genus of oryzomyine rodents (Cricetidae, Sigmodontinae) with three new species from montane cloud forests, western Andean cordillera of Colombia and Ecuador. PeerJ8:e10247

BRITO, J., N. TINOCO, J. CURAY, R. VARGAS, C. REYES-PUIG, V. ROMERO, AND U. F. J. PARDIÑAS. 2019. Diversidad insospechada en los andes de ecuador: filogenia del grupo “cinereus†de Thomasomys y descripción de una nueva especie (Rodentia, Cricetidae). Mastozoología Neotropical 26:308-330.

CACCAVO, A, AND M. WEKSLER. 2021. Systematics of the rodent genus Neacomys Thomas (Cricetidae: Sigmodontinae): two new species and a discussion on carotid patterns. Journal of Mammalogy 102: 852–878.

Candiani, V. S. 2014. Dreaming of dry land: Environmental transformation in colonial Mexico city. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

CARLETON, M. D. 1989. Systematics and evolution. Pp. 7–141. In: Advances in the study of Peromyscus (Rodentia) (Kirkland Jr. G. L., and Layne J. N., eds.). Texas Tech University Press, Lubbock, Texas.

CARLETON, M. D., AND J. ARROYO-CABRALES. 2009. Review of the Oryzomys couesi complex (Rodentia: Cricetidae: Sigmodontinae) in western Mexico. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 331:94-127.

CARPENTER, S. R., E. H. STANLEY, AND M. J. VANDER ZANDEN. 2011. State of the world's freshwater ecosystems: physical, chemical, and biological changes. Annual review of Environment and Resources, 36, 75-99.

CEBALLOS, G., AND C. GALINDO. 1984. Mamíferos Silvestres de la Cuenca de México. MABUNESCO-LIMUSA. México, 229 pp.

CEBALLOS, G., AND G. OLIVA (COORDS.). 2005. Los Mamíferos Silvestres de México. Fondo de Cultura Económica y CONABIO. Hong Kong.

COONEY, S. A., E. M. SCHAUBER, AND E. C. HELLGREN. 2015. Comparing permeability of matrix cover types for the marsh rice rat (Oryzomyspalustris). Landscape Ecology 30:1307-1320.

ENGEL, S. R., K. M. HOGAN, J. F. TAYLOR, AND S. K. DAVIS. 1998. Molecular systematic and paleobiogeography of the south American Sigmodontine rodents. Molecular Biology and Evolution 15:35-49.

ENGSTROM, M. D., C. A. SCHMIDT, J. C. MORALES, R. C. DOWLER. 1989. Records of mammals from Isla Cozumel, Quintana Roo, Mexico. Southwester Naturalist 34:413–415.

ESHER, R. J., J. L. WOLFE, AND J. N. LAYNE. 1978. Swimming behavior of rice rats (Oryzomys palustris) and cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus). Journal of Mammalogy 59:551-558.

EUBANKS, B. W., E. C. HELLGREN, J. R. NAWROT, AND R. D. BLUETT. 2011. Habitat associations of the marsh rice rat (Oryzomyspalustris) in freshwater wetlands of southern Illinois. Journal of Mammalogy 92:552-560.

EZCURRA, E., M. MAZARI-HIRIART, I. PISANTY, AND A. G. AGUILAR. 1999. The basin of Mexico: critical environmental issues and sustainability. United Nations University Press.

EZCURRA E., M. MAZARI-HIRIART, I. PISANTY, AND A. C. AGUILAR. 2001. Socioeconomic changes and its impact on forest resources in the Basin of Mexico. Pp. 23-43. In: Urban Air Pollution and Forests: Resources at Risk in the Mexico City Air Basin (M. E Fenn, L I. de Bauer, and T. Hemández-Tejeda. Springer, Ecological Studies Series.

FERNÁNDEZ J. A., F. A. CERVANTES, AND M. C. CORONA-VARGAS. 2015. Mamíferos del Estado de Tlaxcala, México. Pp. 445-469. In: Riqueza y Conservación de los Mamíferos en México a Nivel Estatal (Briones-Salas, M., Y. Hortelano-Moncada, G. Magaña-Cota, G. Sánchez-Rojas, and J. E. Sosa-Escalante, eds.). Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Asociación Mexicana de Mastozoología A. C. y Universidad de Guanajuato, Distrito Federal, México.

FERRARI, L., T. OROZCO-ESQUIVEL, V. MANEA, AND M. MANEA. 2012. The dynamic history of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt and the Mexico subduction zone. Tectonophysics 522:122-149.

FLATHER, C. H., AND C. H. SIEG. 2007. Species rarity: definition, causes and classification. Pp. 40-66. In: Conservation of Rare or Little-known Species: Biological, Social, and Economic Considerations (Raphael M.G. and Molina R). Island Press.

FLORES-VILLELA, O., H. M. SMITH, AND D. CHISZAR. 2004. The history of herpetological exploration in Mexico. Bonner Zoologische Beiträge 3:311-335.

GARDNER, A. L., AND J. RAMÍREZ-PULIDO. 2020. Type localities of Mexican land mammals, with comments on taxonomy and nomenclature. Special Publications, Museum of Texas Tech University, 73:1-134.

GASTON, K. J., AND K. J. GASTON. 1994. What is rarity? Pp. 1-21. In: The biology of rarity: causes and consequences of rare-common differences (W. E. Kunin and K. J. Gaston, eds.). Chapman and Hall.

GENOWAYS, H. H., AND R. M. TIMM. 2005. Mammals of the Cosigüina Peninsula of Nicaragua. Mastozoología Neotropical, 12:153–179.

GENOWAYS, H. H., AND J. K. JONES, JR. 1971. Second specimen of Oryzomys dimidiatus. Journal of Mammalogy 52:833–834.

GOLDMAN, E. A. 1918. The rice rats of North America (genus Oryzomys). North American Fauna, 43: 1-100.

GOLDMAN, E. A. 1951. Biological investigations in Mexico. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, 115: xiii + 476.

GONZÁLEZ-ROMERO, A. 1980. Roedores plaga en las zonas agrícolas del D. F. Instituto de Ecología, A.C. México, 83 pp

GOODYEAR, N. C. 1987. Distribution and habitat of the silver rice rat, Oryzomys argentatus. Journal of Mammalogy 68:692-695.

GOODYEAR, N. C. 1991. Taxonomic status of the silver rice rat, Oryzomys argentatus. Journal of mammalogy 72:723-730.

GOODYEAR, N. C. 1992. Spatial overlap and dietary selection of native rice rats and exotic black rats. Journal of Mammalogy 73:186–200.

GUTIÉRREZ GARCÍA T. A. 2013. Filogeografía comparada de Oryzomys couesi y Ototylomys phyllotis; implicaciones históricas y geográficas en la conformación de México y Centro América. [Tesis de doctorado no publicada]. Universidad Nacional Autónoma De México.

HALL, E. R. 1981. The mammals of North America. John Wiley and Sons, vol. 1:xv+600+90, vol. 2:vi+601–1181+90.

HALL, E. R., AND K. R. KELSON. 1959. The Mammals of North America. New York: Ronald Press.

HAMILTON, W. J. 1946. Habits of the swamp rice rat, Oryzomys palustris palustris (Harlan). The American Midland Naturalist 36:730-736.

HANSON, J. D., J. L. INDORF, V. J. SWIER, AND R. D. BRADLEY. 2010. Molecular divergence within the Oryzomys palustris complex: evidence for multiple species. Journal of Mammalogy 91:336-347.

HARRIS, D. B. 2009. Review of negative effects of introduced rodents on small mammals on islands. Biological Invasions 11:1611-1630.

HARRIS, D. B., AND D. W. MACDONALD. 2007. Interference competition between introduced black rats and endemic Galápagos rice rats. Ecology 88:2330-2344.

HERSHKOVITZ, P. 1966. Mice, land bridges and Latin American faunal exchange. Pp. 725-751. In: Ectoparasites of Panama (Wenzel, R.L., and V.J. Tipton, eds.). Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago.

HERSHKOVITZ, P., 1971. A new rice rat of the Oryzomys palustris group (Cricetinae, Muridae) from northwestern Colombia, with remarks on distribution. Journal Mammalogy 52:700-709.

HORTELANO-MONCADA, Y., AND F. A. CERVANTES, F. A. 2011. Diversity of wild mammals in a megalopolis: Mexico City, Mexico. Pp. 323-357. In: Changing Diversity in Changing Environment (O. Grillo, and G. Venora). IntechOpen.

INDORF, J. L., M. S. GAINES. 2013. Genetic divergence of insular marsh rice rats in subtropical Florida. Journal of Mammalogy 94:897-910.

JIMÉNEZ-GUTIÉRREZ, A. R. 2016. Los mamíferos silvestres de la Zona Lacustre de Xochimilco. [Tesis de Maestría no publicada]. Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana.

KUNIN, W. E., AND K. J. GASTON. 1993. The biology of rarity: patterns, causes and consequences. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 8:298-301.

KRUCHEK, B. L. 2004. Use of tidal marsh and upland habitats by the marsh rice rat (Oryzomys palustris). Journal of Mammalogy 85:569-575.

LEITE R. N., S.-O. KOLOKOTRONIS, F. C. ALMEIDA, F. P. WERNECK, D. S. ROGERS, AND M. WEKSLER. 2014. In the Wake of Invasion: Tracing the Historical Biogeography of the South American Cricetid Radiation (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae). PLoS ONE 9: e100687.

LIU, J., G. KATTEL, H. P. H. ARP, AND H. YANG. 2015. Towards threshold-based management of freshwater ecosystems in the context of climate change. Ecological Modelling 318:265-274.

LÓPEZ-MEDELLÍN, X., Y R. A. MEDELLÍN. 2005. Oryzomys couesi (Alston, 1877). Pp. 709-710.In: Los mamíferos silvestres de México (G. Ceballos, and G. Oliva, eds.). Comisión Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad, y Fondo de Cultura Económica. México, D.F.

MACÍAS, J. L., J. L. ARCE, F. GARCÍA-TENORIO, P. W. LAYER, H. RUEDA, G. REYES-AGUSTIN, F. LÓPEZ-PIZAÑA, AND D. AVELLÁN. 2012. Geology and geochronology of Tlaloc, Telapón, Iztaccíhuatl, and Popocatépetl volcanoes, Sierra Nevada, central Mexico. Pp. 163–193. In: Aranda-Gómez, J. J., Tolson, G., and Molina-Garza, R. S., eds.). The Southern Cordillera and Beyond: Geological Society of America Field Guide.

MANLEY, E., Y. OGNEVA-HIMMELBERGER, M. RUELLE, R. HANUMANTHA, M. MAZARI-HIRIART, AND T. J. DOWNS. 2022. Land-cover change and urban growth in the Mexico-Lerma-Cutzamala Hydrological Region, 1993–2018. Applied Geography 147:102785.

MÁRQUEZ, A., S. P. VERMA, F. ANGUITA, R. OYARZUN, AND J. L. BRANDLE. 1999. Tectonics and volcanism of Sierra Chichinautzin: extension at the front of the Central Trans-Mexican Volcanic belt. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 93:125-150.

MARTÍNEZ-ABARCA, R. 2023. Una breve historia de la Cuenca de México. Ciencia, novedades científicas, 74: 63-71.

MCFARLANE, D. A., AND A. O. DEBROT. 2001. A new species of extinct oryzomyine rodent from the Quaternary of Curacao, Netherlands Antilles. Caribbean Journal Science 37:182–84.

MCFARLANE, D. A., J. LUNDBERG, AND A. G. FINCHAM. 2002. A late Quaternary paleoecological record from caves of southern Jamaica, West Indies. Journal of Cave and Karst Studies 64:117-125.

MERLÍN-URIBEA, Y., A. CONTRERAS-HERNÁNDEZ, M. ASTIER-CALDERÓNC, O. P. JENSEND, R. ZARAGOZA, AND L. ZAMBRANO. 2013A. Urban expansion into a protected natural area in Mexico City: alternative management scenarios. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 56:398-411.

MERLÍN-URIBE, Y., C. E. GONZÁLEZ-ESQUIVEL, A. CONTRERAS-HERNÁNDEZ, L. ZAMBRANO, P. MORENO-CASASOLA, AND M. ASTIER. 2013B. Environmental and socio-economic sustainability of chinampas (raised beds) in Xochimilco, Mexico City. International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability 11:216-233.

MERRIAM, C. H. 1898. Mammals of the Tres Marias Islands, off western Mexico. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 12:13-19.

MERRIAM, C. H. 1901. Synopsis of the rice rats (genus Oryzomys) of the United States and Mexico. Proceedings of the Washington Academy of Sciences 3:273–295.

MONROY-GAMBOA, A. G. 2021. The ghost mammals from Mexico and their implications. Therya 12:477-486.

MORGAN, G. S. 1993. Quaternary land vertebrates of Jamaica. Pp. 417–442. In: Biostratigraphy of Jamaica (Wright, R. M., and E. Robinson, eds.). Memoirs of the Geological Society of America.

MUSSER, G. G., AND M. D. CARLETON. 2005. Superfamily Muroidea. Pp. 894–1531. In: Mammal species of the world, 3rd ed (Wilson D. E., and D. M. Reeder. Johns Hopkins Press, 2:xx+745–2142.

MUSSER G.G., AND M. D. CARLETON. 2005. Superfamily Muroidea. Pp. 894-1531. In: Mammal species of the World: A taxonomic and geographic reference. 3rd ed. (Wilson D. E., and D. A. M. Reeder, eds.). Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.

MUSSER G.G., AND M. D. CARLETON. 1993. Family Muridae. Pp. 501-755. In: Mammals species of the world. A taxonomic and geographic reference. Second edition (Wilson D. E., and D. M. Reeder, eds.). Smithsonian Instituttion Press and American Society of Mammalogists.

NELSON, E. W. 1899. Natural history of the Tres Marias Island, Mexico. North American Fauna 14:1-94.

NARCHI, N. E. 2014. Deterioro ambiental en Xochimilco. Lecciones para el cambio climático global. Veredas: Revista del Pensamiento Sociológico, 27:177-197.

PAPAVERO, N., AND IBÁÑEZ-BERNAL, S. 2001. Contributions to a history of Mexican Dipterology: Part I. Entomologists and their works before the Biologia Centrali-Americana. Acta zoológica mexicana 84:65-173.

PARDIÑAS, U. F. J., P. MYERS, L. LEÓN-PANIAGUA, N. ORDÓÑEZ GARZA, J. COOK, B. KRYŠTUFEK, R. HASLAUER, R. BRADLEY, G. SHENBROT, J. PATTON. 2017. Pp. 204–279. In: Family Cricetidae (true hamsters, voles, lemmings and new world rats and mice). In: Handbook of the Mammals of the World, Volume 7. Rodents II (Wilson D. E., Lacher T. E. Mittermeier R. A., eds). Barcelona: Lynx Editions,

PÉREZ-BELMONT, P., A. M. LERNER, M. MAZARI-HIRIART, AND. E. VALIENTE. 2021. The survival of agriculture on the edge: Perceptions of push and pull factors for the persistence of the ancient chinampas of Xochimilco, Mexico City. Journal of Rural Studies 86:452-462.

PERCEQUILLO, A. R. 2015. Genus Oryzomys Baird, 1857. Pp. 439-442. In: Mammals of South America, Volume 2, Rodents (Patton J. L., U. F. J. Pardiñas, and G. D’Elía, eds.). University of Chicago Press.

PERCEQUILLO, A. R., J. R. DO PRADO, E. F. ABREU, J. DALAPICOLLA, A. C. PAVAN, E. DE ALMEIDA CHIQUITO, AND M. WILKINSON. 2021. Tempo and mode of evolution of oryzomyine rodents (Rodentia, Cricetidae, Sigmodontinae): a phylogenomic approach. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 159:107-120.

PERCEQUILLO, A. R., M. WEKSLER, L. P. COSTA. 2011. A new genus and species of rodent from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest (Rodentia: Cricetidae: Sigmodontinae: Oryzomyini), with comments on oryzomyine biogeography. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 161:357–390.

PINE R. H., R. M. TIMM, M. WEKSLER. 2012. A newly recognized clade of trans-Andean Oryzomyini (Rodentia: Cricetidae), with description of a new genus. Journal of Mammalogy 93:851-870.

POINDEXTER, C. J., G. D. SCHNELL, C. SÁNCHEZ-HERNÁNDEZ, M. ROMERO-ALMARAZ, M. L. KENNEDY, T. L. BEST, AND R. D. OWEN. 2012A. Variation in habitat use of coexisting rodent species in a tropical dry deciduous forest. Mammalian Biology 77:249-257.

POINDEXTER, C. J., G. D. SCHNELL, C. SÁNCHEZ-HERNÁNDEZ, M. L. ROMERO-ALMARAZ, M. L. KENNEDY, T. L. BEST, AND R. D. OWEN. 2012B. Co-occurrence of small mammals in a tropical dry deciduous forest: comparisons of communities and individual species in Colima, Mexico. Journal of Tropical Ecology 28:65-72.

PRADO J. R., L. L. KNOWLES, A. R. PERCEQUILLO. 2021. A new species of South America marsh rat (Holochilus, Cricetidae) from northeastern Brazil. Journal of Mammalogy 102:1564–1582.

REID, F.A. 1997. A field guide to the mammals of Central America and Southeast Mexico. Oxford University, Nueva York, EEUU.

RAMÍREZ-PULIDO, J., J. ARROYO-CABRALES, AND A. CASTRO-CAMPILLO. 2005. Estado actual y relación nomenclatural de los mamíferos terrestres de México. Acta Zoológica Mexicana (nueva serie) 21:21-82.

RAMÍREZ-PULIDO, J., N. GONZÁLEZ-RUIZ., A. L. GARDNER, AND J. ARROYO-CABRALES. 2014. List of recent land mammals of Mexico, 2014. Special Publications, Museum of Texas Tech University 63:1-69.

RODRÍGUEZ-FRANCO, C. 2001. Forests in the Basin of Mexico: types, geographic distribution, and condition. Pp. 68–85. In: Urban Air Pollution and Forests: Resources at Risk in the Mexico City Air Basin (M. E Fenn, L I. de Bauer y T. Hemández-Tejeda, eds.) Springer, Ecological Studies Series.

ROJAS, T. 1983. La agricultura chinampera. Compilación histórica. Universidad de Chapingo, México.

SÁNCHEZ H. J., J. OCHOA G., AND R. S. VOSS. 2001. Rediscovery of Oryzomys gorgasi (Rodenta: Muridae), with notes on taxonomy and natural History. Mammalia 65:205-214.

SÁNCHEZ-CORDERO, V., AND A. R. VALADEZ. 1989. Habitat y distibución del género Oryzomys (Rodentia: Cricetidae). Anales del Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Serie Zoología 59:99-112.

SANTORI, R. T., M. V. VIEIRA, O. ROCHA-BARBOSA, J. A. MAGNAN-NETO, AND N. GOBBI. 2008. Water absorption of the fur and swimming behavior of semiaquatic and terrestrial oryzomine rodents. Journal of Mammalogy 89:1152-1161.

SCHMIDT, C. A., AND M. D. ENGSTROM. 1994. Genic variation and systematics of rice rats (Oryzomys palustris species group) in southern Texas and northeastern Tamaulipas, Mexico. Journal of Mammalogy 75: 914-928.

SEMEDO, T. B. F., M. N. F. DA SILVA, A. P. CARMIGNOTTO, AND R. V. ROSSI. 2021. Three new species of spiny mice, genus Neacomys Thomas, 1900 (Rodentia: Cricetidae), from Brazilian Amazonia. Systematics and Biodiversity 19:1113-1134.

SEMARNAT (SECRETARÍA DE MEDIO AMBIENTE Y RECURSOS NATURALES). 2010. Norma Oficial Mexicana NOM-059-SEMARNAT-2010. Protección ambiental, especies nativas de flora y fauna silvestres de México, categorías de riesgo y especificaciones para su inclusión, exclusión o cambio, y lista de especies en riesgo. Diario Oficial de la Federación, 30 de diciembre de 2010, Segunda Sección. Ciudad de México, México.

SIEBE, C., S. SALINAS, L. ARANA-SALINAS, J. L. MACÍAS, J. GARDNER, AND R. BONASIA. 2017. The ~23,500 y 14C BP White Pumice Plinian eruption and associated debris avalanche and Tochimilco lava flow of Popocatépetl volcano, México. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 333:66-95.

SIVAPALAN, M., AND BLÖSCHL, G. 2015. Time scale interactions and the coevolution of humans and water. Water Resources Research 51:6988-7022.

STEPPAN, S. J., R. M. ADKINS, J. ANDERSON. 2004. Phylogeny and divergence-date estimates of rapid radiations in muroid rodents based on multiple nuclear genes. Systematic Biology 53:533-553.

STOKES, V. L., P. B. BANKS, R. P. PECH, AND R. L. WILLIAMS. 2009. Invasion by Rattus rattus into native coastal forests of southâ€eastern Australia: are native small mammals at risk?. Austral Ecology 34:395-408.

TIMM, R., S. T. ÁLVAREZ-CASTAÑEDA, AND T. LACHER. 2017. Oryzomys nelsoni. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017. Accessed on 12 de noviembre 2022.

TIMM R. M., R. H. PINE, AND J. D. HANSON. 2018. A new species of Tanyuromys Pine, Timm, and Weksler, 2012 (Cricetidae: Oryzomyini), with comments on relationships within the Oryzomyini. Journal of Mammalogy 99:608–623.

TIMM, R., AND F. REID. 2019. Oryzomys dimidiatus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2019: e.T15594A22387864. Accessed on 17 November 2022.

TORRES-FERNÁNDEZ DEL CAMPO, J., M. OLVERA-VARGAS, F. SILLA-CORTÉS, B. L. FIGUEROA-RANGEL, AND L. I. IÑIGUEZ-DÁVALOS. 2022. Composition and structure of vegetation and tide regulate the occurrence of Oryzomys couesi and Hodomys alleni in mangrove forests of Laguna de Cuyutlán, West-Central Mexico. Wetlands Ecology and Management 30:67-82.

TORTAJADA, C., AND E. CASTELÁN. 2003. Water management for a megacity: Mexico City metropolitan area. AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment 32:124-129.

THOMAS, O. 1897. Descriptions of new bats and rodents from America. The Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Series 6, 20: 544-553.

THOMAS, O. 1893A. Notes on some Mexican Oryzomys. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 6, 11: 402–405.

THOMAS, O. 1893B. On some of the larger species of Geomys. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Series 6 12:269–273.

THOMAS, O. 1898. On indigenous Muridae in the West Indies with the description of a new Mexican Oryzomys. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Series 7, 1:176-180.

THOMAS, O. 1905. New neotropicalMolossus, Nectomys, Proechimys, and Agouti, with a note on the genus Mesomys. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 15:584-591.

TURVEY, S. T., AND K. HELGEN. 2022. Oryzomys antillarum. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Accessed on 15 Noviembre 2022.

VÁZQUEZ-DOMÍNGUEZ E., T. GARRIDO-GARDUÑO, AND E. CALIXTO-PÉREZ. 2020. Climate change impact at the genetic level: patterns in the couesi’s rice rat (Oryzomys couesi). Pp. 301–329. In: Conservation Genetics in Mammals: integrative research using novels approaches (Ortega, J., and J. Maldonado). Springer, 378 pp.

VÁZQUEZ-DOMÍNGUEZ, E., A. MEJÍA-MADRID, R. VEGA, F. A. CERVANTES, J. VARGAS-CUENCA, AND Y. HORTELANO-MONEADA. 2009. Oryzomys couesi en el sureste de México: estimaciones genéticas y filogeográficas. Pp. 197–211. In: 60 años de la colección nacional de mamíferos del Instituto de Biología, UNAM: aportaciones al conocimiento y conservación de los mamíferos mexicanos (Cervantes F. A., Hortelano-Moncada Y., Vargas-Cuenca J., eds.). Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Instituto de Biología, México.

VAZQUEZ-SANCHEZ, E., AND R. J. JAIMES-PALOMERA. 1989. Geología de la Cuenca de México. Geofísica Internacional 28: 133-190.

VEGA, R., E. VÁZQUEZ-DOMÍNGUEZ, A. MEJÍA-PUENTEY, AND A. D. CUARÓN. 2007. Unexpected high levels of genetic variability and the population structure of an island endemic rodent (Oryzomys couesi cozumelae). Biological Conservation 137:210-222.

VILLA-RAMÍREZ, B. 1953. Mamíferos silvestres del Valle de México. Anales del Instituto de 226 Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México 23:269-492.

VOSS, R. S., AND M. WEKSLER. 2009. On the taxonomic status of Oryzomys curasoae McFarlane and Debrot, 2001, (Rodentia: Cricetidae: Sigmodontinae) with remarks on the phylogenetic relationships of O. gorgasi Hershkovitz, 1971. Caribbean Journal Science 45:73–79.

VOSS, S. R., M. R. WOODCOCK, AND L. ZAMBRANO. 2015. A tale of two Axolotls. BioScience 65:1134–1140.

UNITED NATIONS, DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL AFFAIRS, POPULATION DIVISION. 2018. Revision of World Urbanization Prospects (Online Edition). Retrieved from

WALLACE, P. J., AND I. S. CARMICHAEL. 1999. Quaternary volcanism near the Valley of Mexico: implications for subduction zone magmatism and the effects of crustal thickness variations on primitive magma compositions. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 135:291-314.

WANG, Y., D. A. WILLIAMS, AND M. S.GAINES. 2005. Evidence for a recent genetic bottleneck in the endangered Florida Keys silver rice rat (Oryzomys argentatus) revealed by microsatellite DNA analyses. Conservation Genetics 6:575-585.

WEKSLER, M. 2006. Phylogenetic relationships of oryzomine rodents (Muroidea: Sigmodontinae): separate and combined analyses of morphological and molecular data. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 296:1–149.

WEKSLER, M. 2015. Tribe Oryzomyini Vorontsov, 1959. Pp. 291-293. In: Mammals of South America, Volume 2, Rodents (Patton J. L., U. F. J. Pardiñas, and G. D’Elía, eds.). University of Chicago Press.

WEKSLER, M., AND R. TIMM. 2017. Oryzomys gorgasi (errata version published in 2018). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017. Accessed on 22 June 2023.

WEKSLER, M., A. R. PERCEQUILLO, AND R. S. VOSS. 2006. Ten new genera of oryzomyine rodents (Cricetidae: Sigmodontinae). American Museum Novitates 3537:1-29.

WHEATER, H. S., AND P. GOBER. 2015. Water security and the science agenda. Water Resources Research 51:5406-5424.

WIGLE, J. 2010. The “Xochimilco model†for managing irregular settlements in conservation land in Mexico City. Cities, 27:337-347.

WILLIAMS, P. C., AND K. M. IBRAHIM. 2023. The taxonomic status of marsh rice rats (Oryzomys sp., Rodentia, Cricetidae) at the northern edge of their range in North America. Mammal Research 68:1-7.

WILSON, D. E. 1991. Mammals of the Tres Marías Islands. Pp. 214-250. In: Contributions to Mammalogy in honor of Karl F. Koopman (T. A. Griffiths, and D. Klingener, eds). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 206:1-432.

WOLFE, J. L. 1982. Oryzomys palustris. Mammalian Species 176:1–5.

WOLFE, J. L. 1985. Population ecology of the rice rat (Oryzomys palustris) in a coastal marsh. Journal of Zoology 205:235-244.